Security notification for CVE-2015-0235 (GHOST vulnerability)

January 28th, 2015
Posted in Industry News, WebSitePulse News, Tech

A significant Linux vulnerability that allows remote code execution to Linux server(s) was announced late yesterday, named GHOST: CVE-2015-023. Full details of the vulnerability are available at While the issue has been fixed as early as Mar 21, 2013 it was not marked as a security threat and as a result the patch was not backported to most of the stable and long-term-support distributions like RHEL, Centos, Ubuntu 12.04 etc which left them vulnerable.

Updates for CentOS are already available in the Updates repository so a simple "yum update" will install the required patches to mitigate this vulnerability.

Qualys have provided a simple C program to test if a machine is vulnerable

cat > GHOST.c << EOF
#include <netdb.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <errno.h>

#define CANARY "in_the_coal_mine"

struct {
  char buffer[1024];
  char canary[sizeof(CANARY)];
} temp = { "buffer", CANARY };

int main(void) {
  struct hostent resbuf;
  struct hostent *result;
  int herrno;
  int retval;

  /*** strlen (name) = size_needed - sizeof (*host_addr) - sizeof (*h_addr_ptrs) - 1; ***/
  size_t len = sizeof(temp.buffer) - 16*sizeof(unsigned char) - 2*sizeof(char *) - 1;
  char name[sizeof(temp.buffer)];
  memset(name, '0', len);
  name[len] = '\0';

  retval = gethostbyname_r(name, &resbuf, temp.buffer, sizeof(temp.buffer), &result, &herrno);

  if (strcmp(temp.canary, CANARY) != 0) {
  if (retval == ERANGE) {
    puts("not vulnerable");
  puts("should not happen");

$ gcc GHOST.c -o GHOST

We have verified that all WebSitePulse servers have latest updates installed and are not vulnerable.





Security Notification for SSLv3 POODLE Vulnerability

October 16th, 2014
Posted in Industry News, WebSitePulse News

As you probably know, a number of news sources, corporations, and the OpenSSL team reported yesterday 14 October 2014 that version 3 of Secure Sockets Layer (SSLv3) is vulnerable at the protocol level. More information about the vulnerability can be found here -  CVE-2014-3566.

To prevent any potential leaks from this vulnerability we have immediately disabled SSLv3 on all our web servers including the API endpoints. Our monitoring agents are not affected by this change and will continue to support SSLv3 for the time being in order to be able to monitor properly servers that do support SSLv3 only. We are urging all customers to disable SSLv3 on hosts interacting with the our services as soon as possible and upgrade to use Transport Layer Service (TLS).

Here are a few samples how to configure your potentially vulnerable services and disable SSLv3.



Change all SSLProtocol directives in your httpd config to


and restart the server.


Add/edit the the following text to your server directive

ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;

If you can't  disable SSL 3.0 entirely,  there is TLS_FALLBACK_SCSV  patch that can help avoid the attack, if both the client and the server support it.


Internet users in China hit with a massive DNS issue

January 21st, 2014
Posted in WebSitePulse News, Tech, Tech

Today (Jan 21, 2014) between 07:00 and 09:00 UTC mainland China was hit by a wave of network issues. A large number of both Chinese and international domains were reporting connection timeouts and were completely unaccessible. The cause for this was that for some reason a large number of domains were resolving to a single IP address - The problem was reported as resolved in most places around 08:50. Due to the DNS caching infrastructure however a lot of users will still be affected until the cached bogus records expire. Users were suggested to use alternative DNS servers like Google's We strongly recommend if you are using a DNS caching server in China to flush it as soon as possible to avoid DNS issues

The news sources in China first blamed it on a DNS poisoning of the root and the gTLD DNS servers. This however is not the case since the networks outside mainland China were not affected at all. Our investigation showed DNS responses from authoritative name servers coming with bogus data when queried from our servers in Beijing, Shangai and Guangzhou.

For example our first notice of the issue was when we requested the A record of from (, which is one of the authoritative DNS serves for,

the response was      37621     IN      A

instead of  the correct record which is      900     IN      CNAME

This suggests that the response packet was modified in transit and the most likely culprit is the Golden Shield Project (also known as The Great Firewall of China). A possible reason for the misshap is that instead of blocking the IP address all DNS queries were redirected to this IP. Ironically they actually succeeded blocking the IP by creating a massive DDOS attack from all Chinese users who were making connections to this address while trying to access different sites.

The offending IP has an interesting story itself but I'll just put a few pointers
 - It is owned by Sophidea, Inc. registered on the address 2710 Thomes Ave Suite 884, Cheyenne, WY, 82001, US. Reuters ran a special story about this address a few years ago (
 - While there is scant information regarding Sophidea, Inc I can see that they are providing hosting services to a large number of companies and the IPs from this range were frequently reported for spam
 - Hosted on the same network range is which was created to provide means to bypass the China Firewall and provide anonymous Internet access. Ultrareach Corp - the company which owns UltraSurf is registered on the same postal address in Wyoming above. There was some discussion of the actual value of the services provided by UltraSurf  ( but still their service might have something to do with the Chinese goverment wanting to restrict access to this netblock

 Update Jan 22, 2014

The widespread news that a DNS poisoning attack has taken place are largely false. While there was secondary DNS cache poisoning due to this problem the initial error came from the Great Firewall of China and its regional sub-systems. First were affected the domains with low TTL which were frequently visited by Chinese internet users like Weibo and Baidu, but not all sites were affected - for example was getting correct IPs during the whole period.

An interesting fact is that after the IP for a DNS servers was set to the bogus address, which at the moment was already unreachable we were still getting bogus DNS responses from it. Here is an example from our DNS cache logs converted for better explanation

1. Query address
2. We have cached NS records and
3. Find address for

response from ( - this should not happen. The gtld servers should return NS records, not A 19613 IN  A

4.  Find address for
response from ( - this should not happen. The gtld servers should return NS records, not A 34332 IN  A

5. Find address for from the above DNS server addresses (both are
response from - this IP was not reachable at the time. It is obviously coming from a different location pretending to be it 36993 IN  A

 Another fact about the IP  - it was routed via Dynamic Internet Technology Inc.( which lists among its clients (banned in China) and is developing Freegate (an anti-censorship software). Their network took most of the traffic which at the time seemed like a massive DDOS attack. The estimates from some Chinese providers state that more than 200 million users were affected. This raises the question about the security of the Great Firewall. By setting similar DNS filtering rules a malicious attacker can direct the traffic of all China users to any single IP in the world effectively bringing it down in minutes. Currently China has more than 600 million internet users and for comparison the largest botnet in the world to date was estimated at around 30 million bots.

We will update this post with additional information as soon some official statement regrading the issue is made. Please let us know if you have any thoughts on this.



DNS - Domain Name System. The global DNS infrastructure serves as an Internet address book. It allows you to find the IP address needed to connect to a domain name. For example currently resolves to the IP address Additionally it serves information about the email servers behind an email address (MX records), the email servers that are allowed to send email from a domain (SPF records), IPv6 addresses (AAAA records) and more. See more on DNS

DNS spoofing - an attack serving bogus DNS responses to trick users to connect to a different IP address or service. Similar to DNS cache poisoning.

DNS hijacking - an attack that compromises a trusted DNS server or the packets coming from it to redirect the users to different addresses.Also called DNS redirection.

NS records - a typical DNS record containing the domain names and/or IP addresses of the DNS servers responsible for a domain

A records - a DNS record containg the IP address(es) corresponding to a domain name

Golden Shield (The Great Firewall of China) - a large censorship and surveilance project run by the goverment of China. In addition to the capability of blocking specific domains and addresess it is supposed to be able to do  DNS filtering and redirecton and Man-in-the-middle attacks.

Why Your Website Is Down - Basic Steps to Fix It from Home

May 22nd, 2013
Posted in WebSitePulse News, Tech

When it comes to building your business, it is very important to have a fully functioning website or else you are going to miss out on potential clients, resulting in a loss of revenue. Thus, you need to always make sure your website is up and running properly as several different issues can cause your website from loading and working properly. These are easy corrections though, all of which you can do on your own, at home, to make sure your website is available to the world.

When you attempt to visit your website and see an error page instead of your website, you are experiencing one of two problems: your website or host isn't working or there is a problem between your computer and the host server. In order to determine the problem, there is a series of easy tests you can perform to find and correct the issue.

1. Try to reach another website. If any other website does load normally, it means your Internet connection is working properly. If not, you know the problem is with the Internet connection and you need to contact your Internet service provider. Once you figure out the Internet connection is working properly, but you continue to have a problem reaching your website, do as follows:

2. Try to visit your site's hosting company's website. Both your website and the host company website use the same server, and if the company website is not working, you will know it is a server problem. If you are able to visit the website, then the issue is with your own website or the domain name.

3. Try to visit your website from a different computer, tablet or phone. This is to make sure there isn't something wrong with your ISP. If you can visit the website, then you need to contact your ISP. If not, the problem is still either with your site or the domain.

4. Try to ping your domain. To ping your website, click "Start," "Programs," "Accessories" and "Command Prompt." Then type in the word 'ping', then a space and finally your domain name. You should receive a series of reply messages, including the bytes used, IP address information and other data. If you receive any of these - the website is working. However, if the website is not working you'll receive a 'timed out' error message. Should this occur:

5. You need to perform a traceroute command. This identifies different ways your computer connects to the domain and should point out the problem. Return to the Command Prompt, type in the word 'tracert' then a space and your domain name. A series of 19 different lines appears, displaying information regarding the website. 1 is the Internet gateway; 2 is the ISP of the original computer the website connects to; 3 is the extra network; 4 is 'Request Timed Out'; 5-9 are routers on a global gateway, depending on the country the website is based out of; 15-17 is the Net Access Corporation network in the area; 18 is the router on the network of the website, and 19 is the computer the website is hosted on. In the four lines of data there are three stars and the 'Request Timed Out" listed. If this information is displayed in any other line, then you know where the problem is.  You can then find out if you need to contact one of the Net Access Corporation points or other network sites that have the request timed out.

If the ping and traceroute pointed to a fully functioning website, you have a few other options available. You need to open your Web design software and look up the connection information. This is called a few different things, depending on the software you are using, but it is where you type in your domain name, host information and other client identification data to properly connect and upload your updated website to the Internet. Look over this information and make sure it is correct. You might find the wrong domain is typed in or your host ID number does not match what the domain and host provider gave you. To double check this, log onto your domain provider's and server's website and log into your account. If anything is off make sure to correct it and update everything.

What Is a Client Side Certificate?

April 25th, 2013
Posted in WebSitePulse News

A client side certificate is a certificate you use to establish your server to the client.  This is the best way for the server to "know" exactly who is connecting to it.  It works a lot like having a username and a password on your server but without having to interact with the user.  This certificate is used when the client must be known without having to enter a username and password.

These certificates are quite useful as far as the security of your network.  They are created on the Internet server on your computer and can be requested by the client’s computer.  That way, the security of your network is a lot stronger. The client will know that all the information they have sent to your computer is secured with a digital signature provided by the host domain server.

It is very important that you know how to create the client certificate on your computer.  There are several steps in this process:

1. Click on the windows "start" button and select the "settings" button.  Once you are inside of this menu, select the "control panel".

2. Click twice on the "administrative tasks" icon.

3. Click twice on the Internet information service icon.

4. Right-click on the web server virtual directory and select "properties".

5. Click on the "directory security tab".

6. Click on the "edit" button.  This is going to be found in the secure communications section.

7. Check the box that says "require secure channel".  This will allow all of the requirements for security when the user is trying to access the directory.

8. Click on the "require client certificates" button.  You will also need to check on the "enable client certificate mapping" button.

9. Click on the "edit" button.

10. Select on the "many to 1" tab.

11. Click on the "add" button.  In the new window that is going to appear, enter a name for the new rule.  This rule is the one encrypted so that it is secure to use.  You can click on the "next" button once you have entered the name.

12. Make sure to enter the name of the organization and click on the "OK" button.

13. Click on the "accept this certificate".  This needs to be done when the mapping windows appears.

14. Click on the "finish button".

15. Click on the OK button and close out the window.  These are the top fifteen steps to creating client side certificates on the Internet Information Service console after which you need to test out your configuration.

There are three main steps in testing out your configuration:

1. Open up your Internet browser.  This is how you will navigate inside of your Web directory which is now very secure.  Check the web address to see what it looks like.  It should be similar to this: https://localhost/mySecurityDirectory/mySecurePage.aspx.

2. Make sure you receive a message that says your secure certificate was validated as the certificate must communicate with the application.  The application is then displayed to the user.

3. Close out the Internet browser.

All of these steps together are necessary to ensure your Internet browser is very secure for your clients. Thus, follow each one of these steps very carefully as if you miss one, then probably it will not work properly.